Tabyn-Bogdo-Ola

Tabyn-Bogdo-Ola Mountain range (Tavan Bogd-Ula) is located in south of Ukok plateau in Kosh-Agach district of the Altai Republic, on the border of three countries - Russia, Mongolia and China. Northern slopes are Russian Altai. This powerful mountain site is a "heart" of Altai, from where three ridges spread out. South Altai ridge goes to West, little snow Sailugem ridge stretches to north-east, with little snow ridge Saylyugem; the most powerful Mongolian Altai ridge leaves to South west. Glaciers of Tabyn-Bogdo-Ola are the largest in Altai, there are about 35, with a total area of glaciation 160 km². The largest glaciers are Potanin (length 19 km) and Glacier Przewalski (10.8 km). Glaciers feed great rivers Kobdo (Khovd), the Irtysh and the Katun. Thus, the mountain site Tabyn-Bogdo-Ola is a global watershed for the Irtysh river basin and the Obi carrying its water to Arctic Ocean.

Tabyn-Bogdo-Ola (Mongolian "Khüiten Uul") means "five holy mountains." Name was given by Genghis Khan, who was driving far away from this place and amazed by the specific light emanating from one of peaks. Mountain range always impressed researchers of Altai and Mongolia. "The massive snow mountains Tabyn-bogdo or “Five Saints”, were wonderfully beautiful and involuntarily attracted by frosted whiteness in calm weather", writes Russian traveler P.K. Kozlov in the late nineteenth century. Four of the five peaks of Tabyn-Bogdo-Ola are four-thousanders.

The highest point of Tabyn-Bogdo-Ola is Nairamdal (4374 m), located on the territory of Mongolia. It is only 132 meters lower than Belukha. The mountain is sacred to all the people round. "Nairamdal" means “friendship”. The top had another name - "Kiytyn", "Hiytyn" meant "cold top" in 19 century. Famous Altai researcher V.V. Sapozhnikov wrote: "In north-east and north part Kiytyn has a rounded dome shape, almost completely covered with snow, with rare blackish narrow rocky ribs; in south-western direction, towards Kanas pass, the top is cut off a steep wall. " The first ascent to Nairamdal was made by Tronov brothers in 1915 (3-4 category of complexity). Top Nairamdal is clearly seen from mountain Cholok-Chad, rising to the south of Lake Muzdy-Bulak and from pass Betsy-Kanas which is on the border of Russia and China.

Another 4 peaks of Tabyn-Bogdo-Ola with height about 4000meters are also well seen from Warm spring pass. They seems especially powerful rising above U